BOOKS on paper and cardboard work for public schools have appeared from time to time and are in many cases serving a good purpose. There still remains, however, one field which does not seem to be adequately handled and to which this book attempts to make contribution. That is: a course in cutting, measuring, folding, pasting, gluing, sewing, punching, tying, and decorating a variety or paper materials, with a definitely organized series of problems in the making of books, boxes, card mounts, and envelopes. The problems selected are only of these four kinds, because these seem to be the most thoroly suited to the materials from the worker's standpoint and! because they furnish so rich an opportunity for varied manipulations, and such an attractive basis for applied design in the lower grades.
It is believed that in presenting this arrangement of material in handy form, many teachers and supervisors will find some of the help they have been looking for, and it has already become evident that those who have attended Stout Institute desire such a grouping as is here given. In fact, the principal reason for the preparation of this printed course is the constant demand for the less adequate blue prints which have been, issued at Stout Institute.
Problems in simple paper cutting have been omitted from the outlines for the reason that no construction is involved and no measurements required. It is not to be inferred, however, that this work is not recommended, but it is not made a subject by itself.
Paper cutting from pose and from memory, and the cutting of designs are recommended as supplementary work and provision may be made for mounting them upon the card mounts or in some of the book problems. They are especially to be recommended at the beginning of the first grade.
Paper furniture and houses and other problems used in an illustrative manner in connection with other subjects are not considered a part of the present subject and not a part of the primary handwork which leads to forms of manual training in the upper grades. It is believed that most schools will find the problems which are more typical of the material, to be of more value as pieces of construction.
Unusual shapes, saw toothed edges, highly colored floral decorations, inappropriate types of construction, over complex forms and other eccentricities should be avoided everywhere, but especially with young children. These have been carefully excluded from this outline.
While the problems are listed on the following pages as book problems, box problems, card problems, and envelope problems, it is not to be understood that they should be taken in this order and all of the book problems finished before taking up the box problems. Each class olf problems is planned for all four grades and distinguished by three numbers representing:The grade; the class of work; and the relative place in the grade for that class of work. (321 covered small box,is thus in the 3rd grade; it belongs to the box problem group,"2"; and it is the 1 st box problem in the third grade.) This is more fully explained in chapter VI under "Planning of Courses".
Rather more problems have been suggested: than most schools can complete within the time usually allotted to the subject. This provides for considerable choice on the part of the teachers. Many options are also recommended in the foot notes.
As explained in chapter VII under "Equipment and Supplies," the exercises are planned to use 9"x 12" stock. This is frequently to be cut into two pieces 6"x9", and occasionally cut to other sizes. In case there is no provision for cutting a quantity of stock, the pupil may be given 9"x12" stock for everything and be required to save the unused pieces for later work. This use of uniform sizes will be found of considerable convenience in the class room.
Before presenting the work to the classes, the teacher should first, make the problem; second, consider carefully the various steps in the processes of construction; and third, be very definite and clear with directions. The pupil's best effort should be required at all times and his standard of good work constantly raised. A number of hints for the teacher are given in chapter VIII, but most important of all is the necessity that the teacher shall know the subject thoroughly. The directions given for each problem are no substitute for careful preparation, if success is to be assured. Six kinds of lines are given on page 15 to illustrate their use in connection with the directions for each problem suggested.