First published in 1911, this book is based on the teachings at the Stout Institute. With over 100 illustrations and detailed descriptive text the book is designed for teaching children, but those newly attracted to bookbinding will find the information within quite valuable. Some of the obsolete informations like cost of supplies and defunct paper sizes were ommitted.
REALIZING that teachers of primary handiwork need definite directions for handling paper and cardboard construction in public school classes, with such supplementary information regarding the selecting, ordering, and care of equipment and supplies as shall be of immediate help in starting the work, the authors have prepared the following outlines and notes in the form of a hand book especially for their use.
It is also planned to be of service to supervisors of primary handwork as a suggestion for the organization of a course of study and as a collection of supplementary problems suitable: for the lower grades. The notes at the back of the book may be of considerable value in saving time looking up minor details. Art supervisors who handle paper and cardboard construction may find the book problems suggestive as a basis for decorative and illustrative treatment.
Problems have been selected which are suited to the grades indicated and have been carefully tested out by grade teachers in the Menomonie public schools for several years. The point of view thruout the course has been that of an emphasis upon the simple processes involved in typical uses of paper and cardboard in the industries, making such modifications as are required to meet the abilities of young children, and to eliminate all apparatus used in duplicate work. The attempt is made to involve a rational sequence of difficulty in each kind of work undertaken and to encourage careful work from the start. Although the production of good pieces of work is made prominent in the course, many teatchers may choose to use certain of the problems for illustrative purposes in connection with other subjects. In any case the primary handwork should be so handled that the entire school program will become unified for the benefit of the pupil and not stereotyped for the benefit of a logical course.
ANALYSIS OF CONTENTS
I. Introduction Purpose of book is to arrange typical paper constructions in sequence for class use,there is an evident need for this handy form,simple paper cutting should accompany the construction here outlined,illustrative constructions not appropriate to paper are omitted,unusual shapes are not recommended,four kinds of work in paper are given for each of the first four grades and classified by numbers,extra work is suggested for schools having time for it,a standard size of stock is to be used,it is shown that the teacher must make careful preparation before presenting anew problem.
II. Book problems
Sequences are suggested but detailed directions may be omitted,books may be made as an aid to other studies, art teachers find many uses for small books,problems here are limited to 9"x12" stock,an arrangement by grades is suggested,a definite arrangement of information is made for each problem.
The following groups are given to show the scope covered:
Folders: two, three, and four fold; booklet folder
Portfolios: single paper, paper with lap, cloth covered, with cloth corners, note book covers Paper files:pocket and desk files
Pamphlets: for notes, drawings, and mountings; glued, tied, sewed, and with reinforced back
Bound books:cloth covered, with cloth corners, bound magazines, rebinding
III. Box problems
Box making as an industry is important, many uses of boxes in schools suggest themselves, devices for repeating processes are omitted here, box problems are arranged by grades. The following groups are given to show the scope covered: Open boxes: tag board, bristol board; covers lapped, reinforced corners, trays
Folding boxes: tag board, bristol board; with laps, with fitted fastenings Covered boxes: straw board, box board; reinforced corners, lining, covering Sliding box: box board, fitting of box and case
IV. Card problems
Card mounts furnish a good opportunity for a study of color and design, various illustrative materials may be mounted for use, card problems give good drill in measuring and cutting to line, a sequence of difficulty is shown for all card problems. The following groups are given to show the scope covered: Card mounts: for drawings, and photos; folder picture mounts Book marks: simple outline, punched and cut with tab Tag board work: glass cover, postcards, shipping tag
V. Envelope problems
Envelopes are thoroly suited to paper work, a variety of envelope problems may be introduced with profit into the lower grades,, many uses are obvious, an arrangement is shown for each grade. The following groups are given to show the scope covered: Mailing envelopes: Square, medium, long Filing envelopes: paper envelope holder, pocket for clippings, tag toard filing envelopes Envelope files: flat envelope file, book envelope file Paper sacks: flat and with folds
VI. Planning of courses The book is planned to be suggestive for a variety of systems and requirementsfundamentals in planning include the adjustment of problems to fulfill stated aims and the suggestion of method,the numbering system is explained.
Courses in primary handwork may be planned with an emphasis upon sequence of processes, upon grouping of types of construction, or upon the thought side of the subject,the work may be considered from the standpoint of the technical and art value of the subject itself or from that of the whole elementary school course,the analysis of the course may center around the handling of the work in classes or it may concern itself first with a study of children's interests.
Different arrangements by grades are suggested and others may seem desirable in certain localities,the first arrangement provides for all of the book problems in a given grade to be followed by all of the box problems, then the card problems and envelope problems,the second provides for a succession of one of each kind of problem, followed by a succession of another of each kind, and then another, for the sake of the interest which comes from variety,the third provides for a selection from each of the groups arranged in order of difficulty for the entire scheme, the fourth provides for a study of one group more carefully in either the third or fourth grade.
VII. Equipment and supplies
Simple equipment is needed in the class room but it should be properly cared for,a good stock room equipment for the supervisor makes for efficiency,several kinds of paper and cardboard are desirable,a table for ordering paper, gives materials, kinds, sizes, costs, and quantities, other supplies are easily obtained,kinds of supply houses are indicated for reference,a second table arranged by grades gives the kind and amount of stock required for each problem.
VIII. Hints to teachers and
Careful preparation requires that a teacher shall analyze a problem thoroly before teaching it,the proper care of equipment and supplies requires that things shall be instantly available, properly counted, and in usable condition,good teaching requires that materials shall be distributed quickly and without confusion, that directions and other information shall be given in a clear, pointed, and interesting way, good management requires that pupils shall be kept constantly busy at: understood problems, that work shall be collected and cared for systematically, and that all details shall be made to fit into a complete scheme in the mind of the teacher. A supervisor must find suitable occassion for getting necessary directions before teachers,he must see that supplies are ordered, prepared, and delivered to schools on time,he must visit classes and in other ways test the character of the work of teachers,he must find some way to train such teachers as are not handling the subject successfully,he may arrange for exhibitions of school work,he will constantly study the various aspects of his specialty and make it of more value to his community.
IX Bibliography list of books and magazine references is given for the benefit of students and of public school officers and teachers.
Specimens of twenty-four papers suitable for primary construction are mounted and described. They include: cover papers, print and book papers, bond and flat writing papers, marble and glazed papers, wrapping, blotting and gummed papers.