End papers; how made:
These may be white, plain paper, as much like that of the printed page as possible, but often they are made of a colored paper harmonizing with the color of the leather used. While any firm paper of good quality may he used, it should be of tough fiber, so it will not give way in the hinge or during manipulation. Hand-made papers of many kinds are in the market. Of the best and most decorative are those known as the "Morris" papers of English manufacture. Having selected the quality to be used, cut two pieces, which, when folded, are somewhat wider in both directions (say one-half inch) than the section of the book. After folding them -with the plain side out- line one side with white paper like that of the book itself. This lining paper should reach not quite to the jolted edge. Leave a strip about one-eighth inch. Place between two sheets of blotting paper, give them a nip in the press and stand up to dry. Now take two pieces of the same paper just used for lining, fold them the same size as the endpapers, rub paste along one edge of the fold (a width of not more than three-sixteenths inch), paste carefully to the lined side of the end-papers, the two folds being in contact up to their extreme edges. The paste should be allowed to set a bit before sheets are stuck togetherplace between two pressing boards under a weight to dry thoroughly. If the weight is too great or if there is too much paste used, it may spread between the sheets more than is intended and this causes trouble later on. We now have the colored paper folded, one side lined and two more leaves of white paper on the lined side. Open the white sheet and fold the reverse way, so that one of the white leaves now covers the unlined part of the paper. Smooth the fold firmly with a bone folder. The white leaf just turned over is for the protection of the unlined colored leaf, and is torn off when the latter is pasted down on the inside of the cover.
The Cobden Sanderson method of making end-p apers is very ingenious and of great value. It is fully illustrated and described in Cockerells book, to which the reader is referred. Other methods of making end-papers are in use and can be learned by consulting the text-books referred to.
Pasting on the end-papers: These having already been prepared, one is to he pasted carefully on the first and last sections respectively. Each end-paper being folded (the two colored surfaces in contact) we find a white leaf covering the outer side of each colored leaf. As the unlined colored leaf is to be ultimately pasted down on the inside of the board, it is obvious that the paste should he applied to the other leaf; the folded edge should be covered with thick paste for a space say one-quarter inch in width and after it has set (a few minutes) it should be pasted on the section, being flush at the head and not coming quite to the back edge of the section itselfone-sixteenth of an inch or even less being allowed. After both end-papers have been adjusted, place the book between pressing-hoards, well weighted, and let them dry thoroughly. It is desirable that this connection be a most solid one, as it is subject to considerable strain.
Trimming the end-papers: These being usually somewhat larger than the sections, are trimmed after being pasted on .The exact width of the sections is taken as follows, with the compass (before the end-papers are pasted on), the book laying with back to the operator: Place the thumb nail perpendicularly against back of sections, rest one leg of compass against it, with the other at the fore edge.
This distance should be marked accurately on a thin strip of paper, for reference later. The end-paper being pasted on, place a cutting tin somewhat larger than the sections between it and the sections, take the above-described measure with a compass and with thumb nail against back, mark the fore edge of each end-paper, at upper and lower ends of hook by two points with straight-edge and knife cut through them; it will then be found that the edge is true with the edge of the section. Now lay the book on a cutting board, place a thin straight-edge between hook and lower end-paper at head, the straight-edge just showing along head of the section. Press down on the book to hold it steady and cut through, thus trimming the head of end paper. After both end papers have been thus trimmed at head and tail, the book is ready for:
Fraying out the cord:
Each cord is now freed of any glue which may have stuck to it, the strands untwisted and drawn between the finger and a knife-edge or bodkin; this results in separating the strands into the original fibers, and they now present a soft, fluffy appearance.