Intellectual efforts

Nowhere have we more fruitful illustration of this demarcation between skill and the more subjective element of design, than in comparing the historical models which have made bookbinding renowned, with the diffusive examples of binding executed by the majority of modern binders. The old binder … Continue reading


ar beyond the plains of Mesopotamia, on the banks of the Tigris, lie the ruins of ancient Nineveh and Kalach. Until recently huge boulders of rock and mounds of earth, sprinkled with the dust of fallen dynasties, marked the place where once stood the proud capital of the great Assyrian Empire. The … Continue reading


Ornamentation As to the ornament. The aim in ornamentation is the same in art as that of vegetation is in nature. It beautifies all objects and decorates the palace as well as the cottage with all its belongings. This is not meant to say that it requires ornamental decoration to elevate the product … Continue reading