Modern Bookbinding



ODERN advertising literature has grown both in bulk and variety within the last few years to such an extent that special binding methods have become necessary for the preservation of this class of work. The object of these bindings is not only to hold the sheets together in the cheapest possible manner, but to do this in a way that will prove attractive in itself.
The simplest form of pamphlet binding is the one known as saddle-wired ; but even here there is a chance for good work. The stitches can be made to clinch evenly and fit snugly in the fold, distributed at proper intervals from each other so as to hold the sheets firmly all along the line of the back. The trimming can be done so as to show proper margins and absence of clamp marks. The folding should always be in register, even in cheap printed matter. When trimming in a cutting machine, the side gage should be used for the ends — the leaves must be square. No pamphlet binder that cares for his reputation can afford to send out work that has the top and bottom of each bunch, as it comes from the machine, fingermarked or otherwise soiled, or that shows rough edges from a badly marred cutting stick. It takes but a little time to cut up enough waste for a particular job to use as protecting sheets on each side of the bunch before cutting.
Oblong pamphlets or those that have covers containing rule designs require great care in trimming. It must not be taken for granted that the printer has made the covers fit to the body matter ; even if he has, they might have been fed in badly or the guide might have slipped after final 0. K. All covers should be measured in the bindery, in every instance, both as to width and length of its desivn, compared to the type-page of the body. Any defect of position can be remedied before they are folded by cutting off the head margin or one side, or. as has happened to the writer, where the sheets had to be trimmed off at the top before inserting into the covers.
In the case of extended covers, the body is trimmed before stitching so that the cover will extend at least one-eighth of an inch all around. The inside is then inserted into the covers and jogged up evenly on one end. The stitcher- operator adjusts the cover when picking up for the stitcher. When silk floss or knitting silk is used, each bunch of books is marked by scratching a line at the beginning and end of the stitch. This
insures a uniformity in the length of all stitches. Side-wired books are covered by gluing the backs of the books in a stack and then taking each one and laying it parallel to a mark, either printed or sawed, indicating the back. The thread-sewed book is covered in the same manner by wrapping the cover around the back of each, after which the backs are well rubbed and the books stacked up squarely. The best covering for this class of work is done by pasting, or more correctly, gluing the covers down on the sides. The covers have to be scored in four places, two scorings for the thickness of the back and one scoring on each side of the back for a glued-down hinge. The width of’ these hinges should be enough to cover the wire staples, leaving nothing to show but a clean joint and leaf when the cover is thrown open. A good method to use for this kind of covering is to have two girls work together, one taking a few books and running them out slightly before gluing off the backs. The glue will then run in a little on each side, enough for each hinge.
The backs should be held down firmly by means of a strip of board laid across the top while rubbing- down. That will also help to tack down the scored hinges. After the books have been in a stack long enough to dry, each book should have its covers folded back. If any of the covers during this process should open up beyond the hinge, this should be tipped down by inserting a glued strip and then withdrawing the same while pressing down on the cover. A sewed book, having its first and last sections reinforced before gathering and then covered in the, above described manner, will be as strong as a hard bound book.
The ordinary cotton strip reinforcing is both unsightly and useless; it serves to hold the cover to the first leaf only, and as all the strain is thereby put on that one leaf, it soon tears away from the book. Then, too, this kind of work can not be done with uniform neatness; the finished book very often contains strips with unraveled edges or some that are loose in different places. Others will be laid on unevenly and many will show paste spots on the inside of cover or on the books.
Punched and cord-tied books can be either gathered or inserted. If they are gathered, it is better to side-stitch them with one staple first and then glue the backs, covering in the usual way. The books are then firm in the covers and can be punched for cord complete in one operation. Cord- tied books are always hard to open and especially if they have stiff covers. It is therefore best to score the covers with a wide enough hinge to allow for the holes and cord. The covers will not only open up more freely, but the reading matter will become more accessible.
Paper-covered books, sewed and provided with end-sheets for pasting up on the covers, should be glued up on the backs with thin glue and pounded down before covering. If the covers are to extend over the edges, the book should be trimmed to the proper size before covering. A mixture of paste and thin glue is the best to use for pasting
up. Embossed covers can not be pressed without mashing in the raised impressions, and in such cases, each side will have to be rubbed down by hand, after which the books should be laid between strawboards to dry out smooth.
With cut-flush work the pasting up should be done before trimming. Flexible cut-flush cloth covers consist of pieces of cloth wrapped around each book, without boards. The books are sewed, end-sheeted, glued up and hammered down with slight rounding. If the covers have to be printed, this should be done on the unlined cloth first. When these have had time to become thoroughly dry they are laid up and glued off the same as for casemaking. A small stack of books are glued again on the backs with thin glue, after which the glued off cover-piece is laid on and drawn over tightly. When ten or twelve are covered they should be put into a small hand press and nipped, then taken out and rubbed down on the backs and finally spread out between strawboards to dry out.
The most reliable method to follow when covering books that have printing on the cloth is to fold the cloth covers in the center and leave them open, thus giving each piece a crease that will correspond to the center of the book back. The end-sheets best suited for this purpose should be of a good weight and dull finish. The fibers of the paper should run crosswise of the warp in the book cloth, to prevent warping or curling.
In connection with pamphlet and catalogue work, it should be borne in mind that buckling of any sheet in the third fold will spoil the appearance of the book. Be careful in folding to have running heads, if any, register ; otherwise register the folios. Do not break highly finished paper when taking register for folding. In cutting up sheets for folding that have four pages to wrap around eights or sixteens, these should be cut to register at the head.
Do not clinch the wire staples too tight on enameled stock that is saddle-wired, because the inside fours will tear out when the pamphlet is opened. Do not let the paste run into the book when sewing-, nor the glue when covering. Clip off the loose ends of the threads after sewing before covering. Smash all paper-covered books before and after sewing. Use waste leaves to protect work printed on fine paper on the outside of the bunches after gathering, sewing, smashing and cutting; when covering take them off after the books have been glued off.
Two-piece covers for side-stitched books should have cotton or book-cloth strips pasted on the inside edge of each cover. This is done by running out the covers as for tipping and after pasting off a small lot the strips are laid on each, and all of them rubbed down. These strips should be three-quarters inch wide and by sawing in an indentation in the covers one-quarter inch from tipping edge, at each end, uniform tipping gages are secured for the whole lot. These covers are again run out and pasted on the stripped sides for tipping on to the books.
Two-piece covers for machine-sewed books are reinforced in the same manner, but instead of tipping the covers on top of the first or last forms, as for side-stitching, they are in this instance tipped around the signatures ; in other words, the cloth strip is tipped on the back edge of page sixteen of the first signature (if made up in sixteens) and wrapped around the back so that it covers the title or first page. When the book is sewed the needle passes the threads through the reinforcing, thus making the cover a part of the signature. It will also open up to the back freely after the cloth back is drawn over the outside.
to be continued.

The Smyth book sewing machine